Research Update

Research Update

Prescribing Patterns for Children With Anxiety Disorders

Topics: adolescents | Anxiety | Child Psychiatry | children | Medication | prescribing patterns | Research Update | teens | treatment pediatric

Review of: Bushnell GA et al, J Clin Psychiatry 2018;79(1):pii:16m11415 Anxiety disorders are some of the most common conditions we encounter in children and adolescents, and clinicians employ a variety of medications to treat them. This study examined prescribing patterns for the initial treatment of pediatric anxiety. Researchers analyzed a larg

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Research Update

Steroid-Induced Psychosis in the ­Pediatric Population

Topics: adolescents | Child Psychiatry | children | Free Articles | pediatric | Psychosis | Research Update | steroids | teens

Review of: Hodgins GE et al, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2018;28(5):354–359 Childhood psychosis is a rare disorder, and accurate diagnosis is crucial. Recently, clinicians at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine reported a case of steroid-induced psychosis in a pediatric patient. In the case report, a 12-year-old Haitian girl wa

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Research Update

Risk of Psychosis With Stimulants in ADHD Patients

Topics: ADHD | adolescents | amphetamine | Child Psychiatry | children | Free Articles | Medication | methylphenidate | pediatric | Psychosis | Research Update | stimulant | teens

Review of: Moran LV et al, N Engl J Med 2019;380(12):1128–1138 In 2007, the FDA required stimulant manufacturers to warn of possible psychosis with stimulants. But what is the real incidence? This study set out to find and discern if there is a difference between methylphenidate and amphetamine classes of medications. Drawing from two large comm

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Research Update

Melatonin for Insomnia in Patients With Autism

Topics: Autism | Child Psychiatry | Research Update | Sleep Disorders

Review of: Maras A et al, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2018;28(10):699–710 Treating sleep problems in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is tricky at best. One promising treatment is pediatric prolonged-release melatonin ­(PedPRM) sold under the name Slenyto. In 2017, a randomized controlled trial (funded by the manufacturer) assigned 11

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Research Update

Update: Is Watching 13 Reasons Why Bad for Teens?

Topics: Bullying | Contagion | Media | Prevention | Research Update | Risk | Suicidality | Suicide | teens

Review of: Niederkrotenthaler T et al, JAMA Psychiatry 2019. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.0922 Several studies have examined whether Netflix’s 13 Reasons Why is good or bad for teens. Results have been mixed. In the CCPR March/April 2019 issue, we reported a study finding that most suicidal ideation decreased after watching the first season of

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Research Update

Oral vs Extended-Release Naltrexone for Opioid Use Disorder

Topics: Addiction Treatment | Naltrexone | Opioid Use Disorder | Research Update

Review of: Sullivan MA et al, Am J Psychiatry 2017;174(5):459–467 Extended-release (XR) naltrexone (Vivitrol) is FDA approved for opioid use disorder and has shown efficacy in several trials. It works best for patients who have already successfully detoxed from opioids and who are highly motivated to abstain. But what about oral naltrexone? While i

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Research Update

Does Extended-Release Naltrexone Worsen Psychiatric Symptoms?

Topics: Naltrexone | Opioids | Research Update

Review of: Latif Z et al, JAMA Psychiatry 2019;76(2):127–134 Extended-release (XR) naltrexone (Vivitrol) is an injectable version of naltrexone that lasts for 4 weeks and is FDA approved for opioid use disorder (OUD). Although effective, there is some concern that XR naltrexone may cause or worsen psychiatric symptoms because of its opioid blockade

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Research Update

Exposure Therapy Efficacious for PTSD Co-Occurring With Alcohol Use Disorder

Topics: Addiction | Addiction Treatment | Alcohol | Alcohol Use | Alcohol use disorder | Alcoholism | Co-occurring disorders | Dual diagnosis | Prolonged exposure | Psychotherapy | PTSD | Research | Research Update | Substance Use | Substance use disorders

Review of: Norman SB et al, Efficacy 2019;76(8):791–799 Patients with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have worse outcomes compared to patients with either diagnosis alone. Integrated approaches, in which both diagnoses are simultaneously addressed, are viewed as best practice. Providers, however, are

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Research Update

Varenicline and Bupropion: Soaring Again With EAGLES?

Topics: Addiction | Addiction Treatment | Bupropion | Chantix | Co-occurring disorders | Dual diagnosis | FDA Warnings | Medication | Pharmacology | Research | Research Update | Side Effects | Smoking Cessation | Smoking Cessation Agents | Substance Use | Substance use disorders | Suicidality | Suicide | Tobacco | Varenicline | Wellbutrin

Review of: Anthenelli RM et al, Lancet 2016;387(10037):2507–2520 Varenicline (Chantix) and bupropion (Zyban and others) are effective treatments for tobacco use disorder, but their use (and sales) took a big hit in 2009 when the FDA slapped both with black box warnings linking them to psychiatric complications, including suicidal ideation. Although

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Research Update

The COMBINE Study: A Core Paper in the Treatment of AUD

Topics: Acamprosate | Addiction | Addiction Treatment | Alcohol | Alcohol Use | Alcohol use disorder | Alcoholism | Medication | Naltrexone | Pharmacology | Psychotherapy | Research | Research Update | Substance Use | Substance use disorders | Therapy during medication appointment | Therapy with Med Management

Review of: Anton RF et al, JAMA 2006;295(17):2003–2017 Conducted from 2001 to 2004 and published in 2006, the COMBINE study was the largest pharmacotherapy study that assessed the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Although there were significant data on the use of naltrexone and acamprosate (both had been FDA approved), widespread use had no

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Research Update

Gabapentin Enacarbil XR Efficacy Less Than Expected for AUD

Topics: Addiction | Addiction Treatment | Alcohol | Alcohol use disorder | Alcoholism | Clinical practice | extended-release | Medication | Novel Medications | Pharmacology | Psychopharmacology | Research Update

Review of: Falk DE et al, Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019;43(1):158–169 Gabapentin enacarbil extended-release (GE-XR) (Horizant) is an extended-release version of gabapentin. GE-XR is a prodrug, meaning that once ingested it is metabolized into gabapentin. It is currently approved for treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and restless legs syndrome. It di

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Research Update

Can Buprenorphine Improve PTSD Symptoms?

Topics: Addiction | Addiction Treatment | Antidepressants | Buprenorphine | Co-occurring disorders | Comorbidity | Dual diagnosis | Medication | Opioid Use Disorder | Pharmacology | PTSD | Research Update | SSRIs

Review of: Lake EP et al, Am J Addict 2019;28(2):86–91 For many years, the mainstay of treatment for PTSD has been the SSRI class of medications, but many of our patients still suffer crippling symptoms despite optimal antidepressant medication dosing. PTSD is often accompanied by opioid misuse, sometimes in an effort to self-treat the hyperarousal

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Research Update

TMS: Deeper is not Better

Topics: Depression | Depressive Disorder | Pharmaceutical Industry | Research Update | rTMS | TMS | Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation | Treatment-Resistant Depression

REVIEW OF: Filipcic I et al, J Psychiatr Res 2019;114:113–119 TYPE OF STUDY: Randomized single-blind controlled trial Seven transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) devices are FDA approved for depression, but only one—the Brainsway—is distinctly different from the others. Brainsway uses a patented H1 coil that penetrates deeper into the cortex t

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Research Update

Study Ignites Controversy Over Trazodone and Suicide

Topics: Hypnotics | Research Update | Suicidality | Trazodone

Review of: Lavigne JE et al, J Gen Intern Med 2019;34(8):1554–1563 Study Type: Observational comparative safety study Trazodone is one of the most widely prescribed sleep aids in the US despite lacking FDA approval for insomnia. But what if patients taking trazodone attempted suicide at a rate over 1.5 times that of those taking zolpidem (Ambien)? L

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Research Update

Optimal Antidepressant Doses in Major Depression

Topics: Antidepressants | Bupropion | Citalopram | Depression | Depressive Disorder | Escitalopram | Fluoxetine | Mirtazapine | Paroxetine | Pharmacology | Pharmacology Tips | Research | Research Update | Sertraline | SSRIs | Venlafaxine | Wellbutrin

Review of: Furukawa TA et al, Lancet Psychiatry;2019;6(7):601–609 Type of study: Systematic review and meta-analysis Most antidepressants do not have a linear response curve. In other words, the benefits level off as the dose goes up. If the dose gets too high, the side effects start to outweigh those diminishing returns. What’s not clear is whe

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Research Update

An Answer for Psychotic Depression

Topics: Antidepressants | Antipsychotics | Deprescribing | Depression | Depressive Disorder | olanzapine | Pharmacology | Pharmacology Tips | Psychosis | Psychotic Depression | Research | Research Update | Tardive dyskinesia

REVIEW OF: Flint AJ et al, JAMA 2019;322(7):622–631 TYPE OF STUDY: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial Psychotic features in depression indicate a more severe form of the disease, with a higher risk of hospitalization and double the rate of disability compared with non-psychotic depression. A combination of an antipsychotic and an antidepressant is

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Research Update

Pharmacology for GAD: Complex Choices

Topics: Cymbalta | Duloxetine | Effexor | Generalized Anxiety Disorder | Lyrica | Pharmacology | Pregabalin | Research | Research Update | SSRIs | Venlafaxine

Review of: Slee A et al, Lancet 2019;393(10173):768–777 Study Type: Network meta-analysis With over 2 dozen choices, how do we pick a medication for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)? The authors of this network meta-analysis sought to answer this question. Network meta-analysis allows researchers to gauge treatments that haven’t been directly c

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Research Update

Olanzapine for Anorexia Nervosa

Topics: Anorexia Nervosa | Antipsychotics | Eating Disorders | olanzapine | Research | Research Update

Review of: Attia E et al, Am J Psychiatry 2019;176(6):449–456 Type of study: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Antipsychotics have been tried in anorexia since 1960, but their success has been mixed and often outweighed by their risks. Seven controlled trials have tested atypical antipsychotics in anorexia, and although most were p

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Research Update

Is There a Case for Cannabis in the Treatment of Pain?

Topics: Cannabidiol | Cannabis | Marijuana | Opioids | Pain | Research | Research Update

Review of: Da Vita et al, JAMA Psychiatry 2018;75(11):1118-1127 Study Type: Meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials In the midst of the opioid epidemic, researchers are looking for new ways to treat chronic pain. Interestingly, states that have legalized medical marijuana have fewer opioid prescriptions but no clear reduction in mortality over

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Research Update

Another Black Eye for Prazosin in PTSD?

Topics: Hypnotics | Insomnia | Nightmares | Prazosin | PTSD | Research | Research Update | Sleep | Suicidality

Review of: McCall W et al, J Clin Psychopharmacol 2018;38(6):618–621 Study Type: Randomized single-blind controlled trial (pilot study) Prazosin has become a mainstay in the pharmacologic treatment of PTSD. A selective antagonist of the noradrenergic alpha-1 receptor, it has modest benefits in sleep and nightmares that are supported by around ha

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